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You are here: Home » Past Issues » Volume 8, 2013 - Number 4 » THE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CENTRAL SLOVAKIA NATIONAL PARKS


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Ján TOMAŠKIN, Judita TOMAŠKINOVÁ, Jarmila KMEŤOVÁ & Marek DRIMAL
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovského 40, 974 01 Banská Bystrica,
jan.tomaskin@umb.sk, judita.tomaskinova@umb.sk, jarmila.kmetovumb.sk, marek.drimalmb.sk

THE CONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE CENTRAL SLOVAKIA NATIONAL PARKS

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Abstract:

In the contribution we evaluate a concentration of heavy metals in grass ecosystems (in soil and plant biomass). Monitoring was carried out during the years 2009 – 2011 on permanent grassland, in the region of Starohorské vrchy (habitat Radvaň), National park Nízke Tatry (habitat Panský diel) and National park Veľká Fatra (habitat Kráľova studňa). The habitats had different altitude (habitat Radvaň, 480 m a.s.l., Panský diel, 1000 m a.s.l., Kráľová studňa, 1300 m a.s.l.). We specified following elements of heavy metals in soil and plant samples (root biomass and above-ground part of vegetation): Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe and Ni (atomic absorption method metrometry). We recorded the highest concentrations of Fe (1351.45 – 3569.37 mg.kg-1) and Mn (330.28 – 589.27 mg.kg-1) and the lowest concentrations of Cr (3.93 – 7.62 mg.kg-1) and Cd (1.61 – 2.35 mg.kg-1) in all three evaluated environments (soil, roots, aboveground sward).Based on achieved results, we can state that heavy metals are mostly concentrated in plant rootsand in soil. Significantly lower content was determined in biomass of above-ground parts ofvegetation. The grasslands are as excluder of a large group of heavy metals - Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Mn,Fe a Ni in view of the heavy metals transport in soil - root - aboveground biomass, (bioconcentrationfactor BCF <1). This strategy is very suitable for bulk feed production, heavy metalsconcentration is relatively low in aboveground parts of sward, and there is no contamination of thefood chain. Translocation factor (TF) is for all assessed heavy metals less than 1, what isdocumenting their significant accumulation in root system of grasslands. Also was confirmed asignificant effect of years and evaluated habitats on the concentration of heavy metals. Theconcentration of heavy metals is significantly increasing with higher altitude of habitats.


Keyword: environment, heavy metals, grassland ecosystem, soil, plant biomass, national park


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