You are here: Home » Past Issues » Volume 11, 2016 - Number 2 » HIGH DISCHARGE SPRINGS IN THE OUTER FLYSCH CARPATHIANS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE HIGH BIESZCZADY MOUNTAINS (POLAND)
Karolina MOSTOWIK, Marek GÓRNIK, Barbara JAŚKOWIEC, Karolina MACIEJCZYK, Magdalena MURAWSKA, Eliza PŁACZKOWSKA, Bartłomiej RZONCA & Janusz SIWEK
Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow, Poland, e-mail: email@example.com
HIGH DISCHARGE SPRINGS IN THE OUTER FLYSCH CARPATHIANS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE HIGH BIESZCZADY MOUNTAINS (POLAND)
Hydrogeological properties and hydrometeorological conditions determine spring discharge, which is usually very low (<0.5 L s-1) in the Outer Carpathians. The study presents eight high discharge springs in the Polonina Wetlinska Massif in the Bieszczady Mountains (SE Poland) located on the northern slopes at high elevations near the ridgeline. The average discharge of the studied springs ranged from 1.2 to 8.5 L s-1 but under favorable hydrometeorological conditions they may reach 20 L s-1. The detection of discharge during extreme drought confirmed the presence of seven (out of eight) permanent springs which is an evidence for relatively capacious groundwater reservoirs in Otryt sandstones following the NE dip. Enlargement of spring recharge areas in relation to small topographic catchments is caused by the direction of faults and fissures and flow paths following the strike direction of rock layers (the ridgeline of Polonina Wetlinska).
Keyword: spring discharge, Outer Flysch Carpathians, groundwater reservoirs, recharge mechanisms, regional hydrogeology
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